John Merrill Toole

Senior Scientist

Physical Oceanography Department

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

      Birth: March 8, 1953, B.A.; University of Maine, 1975; Sc.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program; 1980,Physics Laboratory Instructor, University of Maine; 1974-75, National Research Council Postdoctoral Research Associate; 1980-82, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory Summer Student Fellow; 1974, Graduate Research Assistant; 1975-80,  Postdoctoral Investigator; 1980, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Assistant  Scientist, 1982-86, Associate Scientist, 1986-96, Tenure awarded, 1990. Senior Scientist, 1996-present, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

      Research Interests: Ocean mixing processes and their influence on circulation.  The mean global heat and fresh water budgets and the roles of water mass formation  and ocean currents.  Variability of the ocean's stratification and circulation at seasonal, interannual and decadal time scale.

U.S. Patents

       No. 5,869,756: Moored water profiling apparatus. Inventors: K.W.  Doherty, J.M. Toole and D. E. Frye, Feb. 9, 1999.

       No. 5,665,909: Free-fall, wire-guided hydrographic profiler.  Inventors:  K.W. Doherty, J.M. Toole; and R.C. Millard, Sept. 9, 1997

Refereed Publications

Joyce, T. M., W. Zenk, and J. M. Toole, 1978.  The anatomy of the Antarctic Polar Front in the Drake Passage.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 83, 6093--6113. 

Millard, R. C., J. M. Toole, and M. Swartz, 1980.  A fast-responding temperature measurement system for CTD applications.  Ocean Engineering, 7, 413--427. 

Horne, E. P. W., and J. M. Toole, 1980.  Sensor response mismatch and lag correction techniques for temperature-salinity profilers.   Journal of Physical Oceanography, 10, 1122--1130.
Toole, J. M., and D. T. Georgi, 1981.  On the dynamics and effects of double-diffusively driven intrusions.  Progress in Oceanography, 10, 123--145.  

Toole, J. M., 1981.  Sea ice, winter convection and the temperature minimum layer in the Southern Ocean.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 8037--8047.  

Toole, J. M., 1981.  Intrusion characteristics in the Antarctic Polar Front.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11, 780--793.  

Toole, J. M., 1981.  Anomalous characteristics of equatorial thermohaline finestructure.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 11, 871--876.  

Georgi, Daniel T., and J. M. Toole, 1982.  The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the oceanic heat and fresh water budgets.   Journal of Marine Research, Supplement to 40, 183--197.  

Hayes, S. P., J. M. Toole, and L. J. Mangum, 1983.  Water-mass and transport variability at 110\degrees W in the equatorial Pacific.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 13, 153--168. 

Toole, J. M., and Stanley P. Hayes, 1984.  Finescale velocity-density  characteristics and Richardson Number statistics of the eastern  equatorial Pacific.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14, 712--726.  

Toole, J. M., and M. D. Borges, 1984.  Observations of horizontal velocities and vertical displacements in the equatorial Pacific Ocean associated with the early stages of the 1982--83 El Nino. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 14, 948--959.
Toole, J. M., 1985.  Near equatorial CTD observations at 85\degrees W in October 1982.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 929--933. 

Toole, J. M., and M. E. Raymer, 1985.  Heat and fresh water budgets of the Indian Ocean--revisited.  Deep-Sea Research, 32A, 917--928.

Mangum, L. J., S. P. Hayes, and J. M. Toole, 1986.  Eastern Pacific Ocean circulation near the onset of the 1982/83 El Nino. Journal of Geophysical Research, 91(C7), 8428--8436.  

Toole, J. M., and R. W. Schmitt, 1987.  Small-scale structures in the north-west Atlantic sub-tropical front. Nature, 327, 47--49.  

Toole, J. M., H. Peters, and M. C. Gregg, 1987.  Upper ocean shear and density variability at the Equator during TROPIC HEAT.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 17, 1397--1406.

Leetmaa, A., D. W. Behringer, A. Huyer, R. L. Smith, and J. Toole, 1987.  Hydrographic conditions in the eastern Pacific before, during and after the 1982/83 El Nino.  Progress in Oceanography, 19, 1--47.

Peters, H., M. C. Gregg, and J. M. Toole, 1988.  On the parameterization of equatorial turbulence.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 93(C2), 1199--1218.

Schmitt, R. W., J. M. Toole, R. L. Koehler, E. C.  Mellinger, and K. W. Doherty, 1988.  The development of a fine- and microstructure profiler.  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 5(4), 484--500.

Toole, J. M., E. Zou, and R. C. Millard, 1988.  On the circulation of the upper waters in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean.   Deep-Sea Research, 35(9), 1451--1482.

McPhaden, M. J., S. P. Hayes, L. J. Mangum, and J. M. Toole, 1990. Variability in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean during the 1986-87 El Nino/Southern Oscillation event.  Journal of Physical Oceanography20(2), 190--208.

Toole, J. M., R. C. Millard, Z. Wang, and S. Pu, 1990.  Observations of the Pacific North Equatorial Current bifurcation at the Philippine coast.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 20, 307--318.

Mangum, L. J., S. P. Hayes, J. M. Toole, Z. Wang, S. Pu, and D. Hu, 1990.  Thermohaline structure and zonal pressure gradient in the western equatorial Pacific.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 7279--7288.

Weller, R. A., D. L. Rudnick, C. C. Eriksen, K. L. Polzin, N. S. Oakey, J. W. Toole, R. W. Schmitt, and R. T. Pollard, 1991.  Forced ocean response during the Frontal Air--Sea Interaction Experiment.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 96(C5), 8611--8638.

Halliwell, G. R., Jr., P. Cornillon, K. H. Brink, R. T. Pollard, D. L. Evans, L. A. Reiger, J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1991. Descriptive oceanography during the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment:  Medium-to large-scale variability.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 96(C5), 8553--8567.

Delcroix, T., G. Eldin, M.-H. Radenac, J. M. Toole, and E. Firing, 1992. Variation of the Western Equatorial Pacific Ocean, 1986--1988.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 5423--5445.

McPhaden, M. J., F. Bahr, Y. duPenhoat, E. Firing, S. P. Hayes, P. P. Niiler, P. L. Richardson, and J. M. Toole, 1993.  The response of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean to westerly wind bursts during November, 1989--January, 1990.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(C9), 14,289--14,303.

Millard, R. C., G. Bond, and J. M. Toole, 1993.  Implementation of a titanium strain-gauge pressure transducer for CTD applications.   Deep-Sea Research, 40(5), 1009--1021.

Johnson, G. C., and J. M. Toole, 1993. Flow of deep and bottom waters in  the Pacific at 10 degrees N.  Deep-Sea Research, 40(2), 371--394.

Toole, J. M., and B. A. Warren, 1993.  A hydrographic section across the subtropical South Indian Ocean.  Deep-Sea Research, 40, 1973--2019.

Gouriou, Y., and J. M. Toole, 1993.  Mean circulation of the upper layers of the western equatorial Pacific Ocean.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 22,495--22,520.

Toole, J. M., K. L. Polzin, and R. W. Schmitt, 1994.  New estimates of diapycnal mixing in the abyssal ocean.  Science, 264, 1120--1123.

Polzin, K. L., J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1995.  Finescale parameterizations of turbulent dissipation.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25, 306--328.

Kunze, E., R. W. Schmitt, and J. M. Toole, 1995.  The energy balance in a warm-core ring's near-inertial critical layer.  Journal of Physical Oceanography, 25, 942--957.

Wijffels, S., E. Firing, and J. Toole, 1995.  The mean structure and variability of the Mindanao Current at 8 degrees N.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 18,421--18,435.

Polzin, K. L., N. S. Oakey, J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1995. Fine- and microstructure characteristics across the northwest Atlantic subtropical front.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 14,111--14,121.

Wijffels, S., J. Toole, H. Bryden, R. Fine, B. Jenkins, and J. Bullister, 1996.   The water masses and circulation at 10 degrees N. Deep-Sea Research, 43, 501--554.

Polzin, K. L., K. G. Speer, J. M. Toole, and R. W. Schmitt, 1996. Intense mixing of Antarctic bottom water in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 380, (6569), 54--57.

Toole, J. M., R. W. Schmitt, K. L. Polzin, and E. Kunze, 1997. Fine- and microstructure evidence of boundary mixing above the flanks of a mid-latitude seamount.  Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 947--959.

Polzin, K. L., J. M. Toole, J. R. Ledwell, and R. W. Schmitt, 1997. Spatial variability of turbulent mixing in the abyssal ocean.   Science, 276, 93--96.

Robbins, P. E., and J. M. Toole, 1997. The dissolved silica budget as a constraint on the meridional overturning circulation of the Indian Ocean.  Deep-Sea Research, 44, 879--906.

Toole, J. M., K. W. Doherty, D. E. Frye, and R. C.  Millard, 1997.  A wire-guided, free-fall system to facilitate ship-borne hydrographic profiling.  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 14, 667--675.

Ffield, A., J. Toole, and D. Wilson, 1997. Seasonal circulation in the South Indian Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 2773--2776.

Kunze, E., and J. M. Toole, 1997.  Tidally-forced vorticity, diurnal shear, and turbulence atop Fieberling Seamount. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 2663--2693.

Doherty, K. W., D. E. Frye, S. P. Liberatore, and J. M. Toole, 1999.  A moored profiling instrument.  Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology16, 1816-1829.

Toole, J.M., Turbulent mixing in the ocean: Intensity, causes, and consequences, 1998.  Ocean Modeling and Parameterization, edited by E.P.  Chassignet and J.  Verron, Kluwer Academic Publishers,  pp. 171-190.

Toole, J. M., K. W. Doherty, D. E. Frye, and S. P. Liberatore, 1999. Velocity measurements from a moored profiling instrument.   Proceedings of IEEE, Sixth Working Conference on current Measurement, March 11--13, 1999, San Diego, pp.~144--149.

Doherty, K. W., D. E. Frye, S. P. Liberatore, and J. M. Toole, 1999.  A moored profiling instrument.   Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 16, 1816--1829.

Toole, J.M., Research discoveries from the open ocean ~1980 to Present: A personal synopsis, 1999.  In: The Future of Physical Oceanography, Report of the APROPOS Workshop, Monterey CA  Dec 15-17, 1997, compiled by T. Royer and W. Young, Sponsored by the National Science Foundation OCE through the University Corporationfor Atmospheric Research, pp 85--114.

Ledwell, J. R., E. T. Montgomery, K. L. Polzin, L. C. St. Laurent, R.W. Schmitt, and J. M. Toole, 2000. Evidence for enhanced mixing over rough topography in the abyssal ocean. Nature, 403 (6766), 179-182.

Toole, J. M. and T. J. McDougall, 2001. Mixing in the Ocean Interior .Chapter 5.2 in Ocean Circulation and Climate, G. Siedler and J. Church, editors, Academic Press, San Diego, pp 337-356.

Wijffels, S. E., J. M. Toole, and R. E. Davis, 2001. On the circulation of the subtropical South Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 19,481-19,514.

Ganachaud, A., C. Wunsch, J. Marotzke and J. Toole, 2001. The meridional overturning and large-scale circulation of the Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 26,117- 26,134.

St. Laurent, L.C., J.M. Toole, R.W. Schmitt, and K.L. Polzin, 2001. Buoyancy forcing by turbulence above rough topography in the abyssal Brazil Basin. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 3476-3495.

DiMarco, S.F., P. Chapman, W.D. Nowlin, Jr., P. Hacker, K. Donohue, M. Luther, G.C. Johnson and J. Toole, 2002. Volume transport and property distributions of the Mozambique Channel. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 49 (78), 1481-1511.

Polzin, K.L., E. Kunze, J.M. Toole and R.W. Schmitt, 2003. The partition of small scale energy into internal waves and subinertial motions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33, 234-248.

Donohue, K. and J. Toole, 2003. A near-synoptic survey of the Southwest Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 1893-1932.

Toole, J.M., H.-M. Zhang and M.J. Caruso, 2004. On the time-dependent internal energy budgets of the tropical warm water pools. Journal of Climate, 17, 1398-1410.

Nash, J.D., E. Kunze, J.M. Toole and R.W. Schmitt, 2004. Internal tide reflection and turbulent mixing on the continental slope.Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34, 1117-1134.

Schmitt, Raymond W., Robert C. Millard, John M. Toole and W. David Wellwood, 2005. A double-diffusive interface tank for dynamic-response studies. Journal of Marine Research, 63, 263-289..

Schmitt, R.W., J.R. Ledwell, E.T. Montgomery, K.L. Polzin and J.M. Toole, 2005. Diapycnal mixing by salt fingers in the main thermocline of the tropical Atlantic. Science, 308, 685-688.

Thurnherr, A. M., L. C. St. Laurent, K. G. Speer, J. M. Toole and J. R. Ledwell, 2005. Mixing Associated with Sills in a Canyon on the Mid-Ocean Ridge Flank, Journal of Physical Oceanography., in press.